In this work, the historical relationship between permanent magnets and powder metallurgy is reviewed. Powder metallurgy is a manufacturing technique based on the compaction of powders that are sintered to create a solid product. This technique was used in the production of permanent magnets for the first time in the 18 th century and, nowadays, most permanent magnetic materials are manufacturing by this mean. Magnetic properties are highly dependent on the microstructure of the final product, the magnetic alignment of domains and presence of porosity, to mention a few, and powder metallurgy enables fine control of these factors. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Powder metallurgy is a production technology that encompasses the manufacture of products from powders by sintering.
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Blackford, J. Friction on ice: stick and slip. Faraday Discuss. Campbell, P. Permanent Magnet Materials and their Application.
A method for the fabrication of copper foams by powder metallurgy, employing carbamide beads as space holders, is presented. These are removed by water dissolution before sintering the compact. The method allows for a precise control of the cell characteristics size, shape and distribution within an interconnected porosity. The use of metal powder promotes the formation of an inherent porosity in the cell walls that affects their mechanical properties, producing failure at a lower than expected tension. Optimization of the method was achieved by selecting the sintering parameters compaction pressure, temperature and atmosphere.
Permanent magnets and its production by powder metallurgy