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Infrared thermography as a non-destructive test for the inspection of reinforced concrete bridges: A review of the state of the art. This article aims to present the methodologies, advantages and limitations of the infrared thermography test for the inspection of reinforced concrete bridges. A systematic review of articles and academic material related to the area was carried out. This review focuses mainly on the passive application and on both laboratory and field studies. A critical approach to the information available was used in relation to its scope was used.

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Distant measuring via a thermal camera provides more accurate data on vegetative parameters when compared to traditional techniques due to the fact that the data may be obtained from a large continual area and it may be repeated quickly and easily at regular intervals.

The intensity of radiation or the ability of plants to radiate, absorb and reflect thermal radiation depends on the properties of a leaf surface of the cover orientation and surface structure , yet the amount of radiated energy also depends on the pigmentation of leaves, their width, arrangement of cells structure and the content of water in the leaf tissue. Green plant leaves typically show very low reflectivity and permeability in a visible radiation spectrum 0.

Contrary to that, in the infrared area reflectivity increases owing to the content of mesophyll in cell walls which differs in individual parts of the leaf and small absorption of infrared radiation by pigments.

As a result, the structure of leaves is the decisive element when analysing this radiation. Spectral properties in the area of short IR waves — i. Tree nurseries — places in which we may grow plants up to a certain size, defined in advance, at which they may be further replanted or distributed. Plants may be grown in open fields, tunnels or greenhouses. Early detection of the quality of sowing is an efficient instrument to detect seeds capable of germinating and seeds that are not able to do so.

The traditional methods of the inspection of germination, viability are time-consuming, destructive and labour intensive. Infrared imaging technique seems to be a possible alternative to traditional methods. We have ascertained a high degree of correlation between the temperature of seeds and their germination. The lower temperature the seeds have, the better their condition is and the better they will germinate. This issue is probably connected with the degradation of cell membranes during the ageing of seeds and, therefore, a larger ability to radiate thermal radiation.

On the basis of temperature changes, we may differentiate not only the degrees of quality of seeds, but also the quality of the process of germination and growth of seeds, seedlings and plants in tree nurseries. Irrigation is necessary for agricultural production, predominantly, in the areas with insufficient or irregular amounts of the rainfall. The studies show that the intensity of the thermal radiation of plants is very sensitive to the lack of water.

The reaction of plants to so-called water stress is that the pores on leaves close, which increases the temperature and, therefore, also IR radiation emitted by the plant. This application requires necessary monitoring of the plant surface, recording measured data and its subsequent analysing.

The placement of the Workswell WIRIS System on the drone enables recording a large area, for example a field or orchard, saving data as radiometric images and analysing it easily by the supplied software. The system can communicate with the GPS locator, which significantly helps when comparing data from individual localities in time. High sensitivity of a thermal sensor in a thermal camera is essential to distinguish even small temperature differences.

The Workswell Wiris Systemii thermal camera may achieve sensitivity up to 0. Thermal camera systems may be also utilised in the area of plant yield estimation and detection. Specifically, the thermal imaging camera systems have been successfully applied in measuring the amounts of fruit on fruit trees. We have verified that we may differentiate the fruit from the remaining part of the tree via IR radiation as during the night the temperature of fruit is by ca.

This noticeable difference enables us to determine the amount of fruit or predict a future yield. In the case of individual trees for example in experimental orchards of research institutions , we may perform these analyses with a manual thermal camera.

If we need to determine yields at vast plantations, a thermal camera system for drones will be of a valuable assistance as it enables flying over a large area during a very short time, easy repeating of measuring in regular intervals and identifying every tree via the GPS information that is assigned to images in the case of connecting an external GPS receiver.

The overview stated above shows that the Workswell Wiris System in connection with a drone may be definitely utilised in agriculture. The major positives of the system include high sensitivity of the camera thermal sensor up to 0. The thermal camera is calibrated in terms of temperature, therefore the maximum possible accuracy of measured values is ensured.

A possibility to set a manual range of the temperature scale is a great advantage when compared to competitive products. Thus we may achieve the same chromaticity of individual temperatures for all images, the colour range will not change automatically with the change of temperatures of surroundings or subjects. Every moment, the user will recognise the temperature of the observed subject according to the colour and the scale at the side part of the image.

The system may be fully controlled by two switches on a standard RC transmitter, all the functions may be controlled during the flight, therefore, we may, for instance, change emissivity if the drone flies over different surfaces and materials construction sites, fields, plants, bodies of water,…. Saved data both videos and images are fully radiometric, which means that they preserve the information on the temperature in addition to colourful images.

Such images may be processed in the supplied software, in which we may additionally change the setting emissivity, reflected temperature, range, temperature scale, etc. Tractor preparing land for sowing. Tree Nurseries Tree nurseries — places in which we may grow plants up to a certain size, defined in advance, at which they may be further replanted or distributed.

Irrigation Inspection Irrigation is necessary for agricultural production, predominantly, in the areas with insufficient or irregular amounts of the rainfall. Attack of Diseases. Hexacopter UAV drone in support of agriculture. Plant Yield Estimation. Outdoor monitor with light shield installed on a stand in use for drone control and video streaming.

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Search engine :. Return to the menu. Interested in this item? ABSTRACT: This work develops a protocol for tracking thermal parameters skin temperature in operators men and women that work in an assembly station, by monitoring the temperature of the skin on the back-shoulders-hand, using the method of infrared thermography as a noninvasive tool for risk assessment in musculoskeletal diseases. The study characterizes the difference in temperature for men and women that perform same manual assembly tasks.

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Distant measuring via a thermal camera provides more accurate data on vegetative parameters when compared to traditional techniques due to the fact that the data may be obtained from a large continual area and it may be repeated quickly and easily at regular intervals. The intensity of radiation or the ability of plants to radiate, absorb and reflect thermal radiation depends on the properties of a leaf surface of the cover orientation and surface structure , yet the amount of radiated energy also depends on the pigmentation of leaves, their width, arrangement of cells structure and the content of water in the leaf tissue. Green plant leaves typically show very low reflectivity and permeability in a visible radiation spectrum 0. Contrary to that, in the infrared area reflectivity increases owing to the content of mesophyll in cell walls which differs in individual parts of the leaf and small absorption of infrared radiation by pigments. As a result, the structure of leaves is the decisive element when analysing this radiation. Spectral properties in the area of short IR waves — i.

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