KWASHIORKOR PATHOPHYSIOLOGY PDF

Cicely Williams, in her original description of kwashiorkor, implied that deficiency of protein in the baby's food could be a main cause of the syndrome. The hallmark of kwashiorkor is oedema. This theory has been contested from several points of view: that hypoalbuminaemia is not the major factor determining the presence of oedema, and that there is no real evidence of dietary protein deficiency. The resolution of this question is of some importance from the point of view of public health diagnosis and prevention. A crucial point in the argument is the pathogenesis of oedema, which is discussed in some detail. Although it is clearly multifactorial, with electrolyte disturbances—potassium deficiency and sodium retention—playing an important role, it is contended that the classical theory is essentially correct.

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Cicely Williams, in her original description of kwashiorkor, implied that deficiency of protein in the baby's food could be a main cause of the syndrome.

The hallmark of kwashiorkor is oedema. This theory has been contested from several points of view: that hypoalbuminaemia is not the major factor determining the presence of oedema, and that there is no real evidence of dietary protein deficiency.

The resolution of this question is of some importance from the point of view of public health diagnosis and prevention. A crucial point in the argument is the pathogenesis of oedema, which is discussed in some detail. Although it is clearly multifactorial, with electrolyte disturbances—potassium deficiency and sodium retention—playing an important role, it is contended that the classical theory is essentially correct.

On the dietary side, recent experimental work supports the earlier view that the development of oedema depends on a relative deficiency of protein with a relative excess of energy. Comparisons of intakes with requirements are unconvincing in view of uncertainty about the validity of the estimates of children's needs for protein.

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Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Search Menu. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Kwashiorkor revisited: the pathogenesis of oedema in kwashiorkor and its significance J. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Cite J. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Summary Cicely Williams, in her original description of kwashiorkor, implied that deficiency of protein in the baby's food could be a main cause of the syndrome.

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Kwashiorkor

Kwashiorkor is a form of severe protein malnutrition characterized by edema and an enlarged liver with fatty infiltrates. It is caused by sufficient calorie intake, but with insufficient protein consumption, which distinguishes it from marasmus. Kwashiorkor cases occur in areas of famine or poor food supply. Jamaican pediatrician Cicely Williams introduced the term in , two years after she published the disease's first formal description. In at-risk populations, kwashiorkor may develop after a mother weans her child from breast milk, replacing it with a diet high in carbohydrates , such as a maize diet. The defining sign of kwashiorkor in a malnourished child is pitting edema swelling of the ankles and feet. Other signs include a distended abdomen , an enlarged liver with fatty infiltrates, thinning of hair, loss of teeth, skin depigmentation and dermatitis.

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