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Home About Contact. It is hereby approved for its contribution to knowledge. Student Signature Date. Supervisor Signature Date. I dedicate this work to Almighty God for his protection and good health He bestow me throughout the duration of this programme. I cannot but make specific references to those people who contributed greatly towards the successful completion of this study.
I am grateful for her guidance and assistance, especially her patience in reading and examining thoroughly every aspect of the work in making necessary corrections, an act which fully attests to her academic sagacity. Iris Localization: ……………………………………………………………………………. Iris Normalization: ………………………………………………………………………….. Iris recognition is a biometric technology for identifying humans by capturing and analysing the unique patterns of the iris in the human eye. A biometric system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature or characteristic possessed by the individual.
Unlike other biometric such as fingerprints and face recognition, the distinct aspect of iris comes from randomly distributed features. Iris recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. This seminar work shows how Iris recognition work, its comparison with other biometric device and some of its application areas such as Automated Teller Machine ATM , Tracking Prisoner Movement, National Border Control, Ticketless air travel and Premises access control.
Finally, some advantages include protection, speed, accuracy, scalability and stability, and some disadvantages are blindness, infection, and expensive equipment etc. In conclusion, it provides an accurate and secure method of authenticating users onto company systems. The number of systems that have been compromised is ever increasing and authentication plays a major role as a first line of defence against intruders.
The three main types of authentication are something you know such as a password , something you have such as a card or token , and something you are biometric. Passwords are notorious for being weak and easily crackable due to human nature and our tendency to make passwords easy to remember or writing them down somewhere easily accessible.
Cards and tokens can be presented by anyone and although the token or card is recognizable, there is no way of knowing if the person presenting the card is the actual owner.
Biometrics, on the other hand, provides a secure method of authentication and identification, as they are difficult to replicate and steal. Iris recognition is a biometric technology for identifying humans by capturing and analyzing the unique patterns of the iris in the human eye. For example, these include passport control, border control, frequent flyer service, premises entry, access to privilege information, computer login or any other transaction in which personal identification and authentication relies on knowledge-based or token-based passwords.
Through impersonation, a high-risk security area can be at risk. An unauthorized person may get access to confidential data or important documents can be stolen. Normally, impersonation is tackled by identification and secure authentication, however, the traditional knowledge-based password or possession-based ID, Smart Card methods are not sufficient since they can be easily hacked or compromised.
Hence, there is an essential need for personal characteristics-based biometric identification due to the fact that it can provide the highest protection against impersonation. Due to increased rate of crime, inaccuracy, unreliability, inadequacy of other biometric techniques and the use of weak password which can be easily cracked, the quest for strong authentication is needed and that is where Iris Recognition comes in.
This seminar topic is generally conducted to understand Iris Recognition, a tool for modern security. Other specific objectives include;. This seminar presentation is significant in several aspects. Apart from being a necessary condition in Madonna University, it is also an opportunity for the researcher to conduct an independent study based on empirical data.
Furthermore, it will help to advance knowledge and hence, be of great value to other researchers taking computer science as a course and researching on related issues and to members of the academic in general.
Finally recommendations made in this study will serve as possible solutions to appropriate agencies in adopting Iris Recognition in curtailing crimes and impersonation. The scope of the study was restricted to Iris Recognition, it will focus on Iris Rsecognition as a biometric technology, and comparison with other biometric technology such as Finger Print, Hand Geometry, Facial Recognition and Retina Recognition etc.
This study is designed specifically to examine Iris Recognition, a tool for modern security, hence because of research constraints such as time which is of essence and no researcher have the luxury of it all and finance that is usually inadequate and limited at the disposal of researcher.
It consists of muscles that adjust the size of the pupil Vijay Dhir et al, This may be affected by the use of a password or possession of a physical device Elgamal, Can be done in conjunction with a smart card, username or ID number. Vijay Dhir et al, The identification only succeeds in identifying the individual if the comparison of the biometric sample to a template in the database falls within a previously set threshold Vijay Dhir et al, For systematic presentation, this work is planned in four chapters.
Each chapter deals with a particular aspect or segment of the work. CHAPTER ONE starts by introducing the topic, which gives an insight and in-depth analysis of the seminar work, which was closely followed by the objectives of the topic, which gave rise to the significance of the topic, followed by the limitation, scope and crowned by the organization of the topic.
The iris recognition technology captures and analyzes the unique features of iris in the human eye to perform identification. In , ophthalmologist Frank Burch proposed the concept of using iris patterns as a method to recognize an individual, the idea appeared in James Bond films, but it still remained science fiction and conjecture. The first claim that no two irises are identical was made by Dr. Leonard Flom and Dr. Aran Safir, both ophthalmologists in mid s. The claim was based on their clinical research that every iris is different and was seen to remain unchanged in clinical photographs.
This claim made the human iris as a good candidate for a biometric solution and after substantial research the patent of using iris as a means for identifying persons was awarded to them in Flom approached Harvard Professor Dr.
John Daugman to develop an algorithm to automate identification of the human iris. Later in Dr. John Daugman developed algorithms for recognizing persons by iris recognition.
In , the Defense Nuclear Agency began work to test and deliver a prototype unit, which was successfully completed by due to the combined efforts of Drs. Flom, Safir, and Daugman. In , Dr. Daugman was awarded a patent for his automated iris recognition algorithms. In , the first commercial products became available. According to his introduction, Elgamal, Automatic reliable personnel identification systems using biometrics have received a great importance in the past few years.
Biometrics refers to a science of analyzing human physiological or behavioural characteristics for security purposes. Biometric technologies are being utilized across a variety of applications. There are many biometric technologies which commonly be used in government, forensics and commercial area Ross, such as iris recognition, fingerprints, hand geometry, and DNA Ghatol, According to Masek , the iris is a thin color circular diaphragm, which can be found between the cornea and the lens of the human eye and close to the pupil.
Position of the iris is bounded by the pupil and the sclera white of the eye on their surroundings. Iris has much visual information in the texture Murty, Reddy, and Babu, The pattern of iris forms from the third month of gestation and complete these pattern structures in five months, and their pigment accretion can continue until two 2 years old age Daugman, In , ophthalmologist Frank Burch proposed iris pattern for personal recognition. Then in two ophthalmologists, Aran Safir and Leonard Flom, patented this idea, and they ask John Daugman to create algorithms for iris recognition in Daugman, Iris provides one of the most stable biometric signals for identification, with a distinctive texture that is formed before age one and remains constant throughout life unless there is an injury to the eye Ives, Iris recognition can easily be considered as the most reliable form of biometric technology, compared with other biometric technologies, such as face, and fingerprint recognition Nasser A.
Biqami, Most of the currently deployed commercial algorithms for iris recognition by John Daugman have a very low false acceptance rate compared to the other biometric identifiers.
Some of the biometric identifiers have problems with replay attacks, for instance fingerprints. Replay attacks with the iris biometric can be check by detecting the aliveness of the eye. The pupil changes its size when light is shone into the eye. The algorithms are able to measure this change in pupil size.
The process of capturing the iris image is not intrusive. According to Rishabh and Sandeep J. For the purpose of research and development of Iris recognition technology there are few public and freely available databases to have sample images. These iris databases contributes rich amount of iris images which were taken in different environments. In this paper they discuss and compare the main characteristics of the public and freely available iris image databases to find the suitable one to test feature extraction method of iris recognition in non-cooperative environment.
The iris usually has a brown, blue, gray, or greenish color, with complex patterns that are visible upon close inspection. Because it makes use of a biological characteristic, iris recognition is considered a form of biometric verification. Iris recognition combines computer vision, pattern recognition, statistics, and the human machine interface. The human iris is a coloured oval — to round-shaped ring surrounding the pupil of the eye. Figure 1 shows a sample iris, it consists of muscles that adjust the size of the pupil.
The iris is the only internal body organ that is visible externally. One of the most distinctive characteristics is its stability. Hussein H. Fakhry and Benedict B. Cardozo, Figure 1: The Human Iris. The iris pattern is more complex and more random than other biometric patterns and hence offer a highly precise methods for individual authentication with a false acceptance error rate of less than one in two million records.
The iris located in the human eye is protected behind the eyelid, cornea and aqueous. This helps it to keep the damage and abrasion minimal.
In addition it is nearly impossible to forge identity. The iris pattern remains stable and unchanged after the age of two year and does not degrade over time or with the environment.
In today? Individuals generally do not want others to have personal information about them unless they decide to reveal it. With the rapid development of technology, it is more difficult to maintain the levels of privacy citizens knew in the past. In this context, data security has become an inevitable feature.
A SEMINAR REPORT ON IRIS RECOGNITION: A TOOL FOR MODERN SECURITY
In today's information age it is not difficult to collect data about an individual and use that information to exercise control over the individual. Individuals generally do not want others to have personal information about them unless they decide to reveal it. With the rapid development of technology, it is more difficult to maintain the levels of privacy citizens knew in the past. In this context, data security has become an inevitable feature.
In today's information age it is not difficult to collect data about an individual and use that information to exercise control over the individual. Individuals generally do not want others to have personal information about them unless they decide to reveal it. With the rapid development of technology, it is more difficult to maintain the levels of privacy citizens knew in the past. In this context, data security has become an inevitable feature. Conventional methods of identification based on possession of ID cards or exclusive knowledge like social security number or a password are not altogether reliable. ID cards can be almost lost, forged or misplaced: passwords can be forgotten.