Correspondence Address : Dr. Surgical management of intermittent exotropias IXTs is ambiguous, with techniques of management varying widely between institutions. This review aims to examine available literature on the surgical management of IXT. All English-language papers published between and the present day were considered.
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Correspondence Address : Dr. Surgical management of intermittent exotropias IXTs is ambiguous, with techniques of management varying widely between institutions.
This review aims to examine available literature on the surgical management of IXT. All English-language papers published between and the present day were considered. Advanced Search. Timely surgery in intermittent and constant exotropia for superior sensory outcome.
Am J Ophthalmol ; A retrospective review of consecutive children in Singapore presenting with intermittent exotropia.
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Iran J Ophthalmol ; Development of monofixation syndrome in congenital esotropia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; Visual suppression in intermittent exotropia during binocular alignment. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; Clinical investigation of surgery for intermittent exotropia. Monocular eye closure in sunlight. Wang FM, Chryssanthou G. Monocular eye closure in intermittent exotropia. Arch Ophthalmol ; Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group.
The clinical profile of moderate amblyopia in children younger than 7 years. The clinical course of intermittent exotropia. Optom Vis Sci ; Distance stereoacuity.
Assessing control in intermittent exotropia. Intervention for intermittent distance exotropia with overcorrecting minus lenses. Eye Lond ; Treatment options in intermittent exotropia: A critical appraisal. Corrrection of exotropia by implantable collamer lens. Indian J Ophthalmol ; In: Binocular Vision and Ocular Motility. Louis: Mosby; p. Long-term prognosis of distance stereoacuity in intermittent exotropia after strabismus surgery. Hatt SR, Gnanaraj L. Interventions for intermittent exotropia.
The use of the Newcastle control score in the management of intermittent exotropia. Br J Ophthalmol ; Kushner BJ. The occurrence of monofixational exotropia after exotropia surgery. Am J Ophthalmol ;, Intermittent exotropia surgery in children: Long term outcome regarding changes in binocular alignment. A study of cases. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q ; Gill LK, Arnoldi K.
Binocular vision outcomes following surgery for long-standing large angle exodeviation. Strabismus ; Florida: Fort Lauderdale; Surgical Out-comes in Exotropia. Sensory results after lateral rectus muscle recession for intermittent exotropia operated before two years of age.
Handbook of Pediatric Strabismus and Amblyopia. New York, NY: Springer; Evaluation of distance and near stereoacuity and fusional vergence in intermittent exotropia. Burian HM. Selected problems in the diagnosis and treatment of the neuromuscular anomalies of the eyes. In: International Course Ophthalmology. Vol 2. Barcelona, Spain: Publications of the Institute Barraquer; The surgical management of exodeviations. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc ; Exodeviations: Their classification, diagnosis, and treatment.
Evaluation of diagnostic methods for the classification of exodeviations. Comparative measurement of exodeviations at twenty and one hundred feet.
Scobee RG. In: The Oculorotary Muscles. The distance angle to target in surgery for intermittent exotropia. Treatment of intermittent exotropia. Parks MM.
Concomitant exodeviations. In: Ocular Motility and Strabismus. Hagerstown, MD: Harper and Row; The long-term survival analysis of bilateral lateral rectus recession versus unilateral recession-resection for intermittent exotropia. Outcomes from surgical treatment for dissociated horizontal deviation. Jampolsky A. Ocular divergence mechanisms. Outcome study of bilateral lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia in children.
The postoperative results and stability of exodeviations. Post-operative evolution of the planned initial over-correction in intermittent exotropia: 61 cases. Outcome of unilateral lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection in primary exotropia. BMC Res Notes ; Surgical results in different age groups.
Hardesty HH. Treatment of under and overcorrected intermittent exotropia with prism glasses. Am Orthopt J ; Prisms in the management of intermittent exotropia. Knapp P. Recent advances in strabismus management.
Use of membrane prisms. A summary of 1, consecutive cases.
Divergence excess DE is a type of intermittent exotropia IXT defined by a larger exodeviation at distance than at near. This case report explains the signs and symptoms of IXT and evaluation of a patient. Of the various treatment options, the case report focuses on management of IXT with overminus therapy. Advantages and disadvantages of other treatment options are also discussed. Intermittent exotropia IXT is the most common form of childhood exotropia 1, 2 with an incidence of
Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences. Intermittent exotropia is an exodeviation intermittently controlled by fusional mechanisms. Unlike a pure phoria, intermittent exotropia spontaneously breaks down into a manifest exotropia. Prevalence - Exodeviations are much more common in latent or intermittent form than are esodeviations.
Intermittent Divergent Squint in Prematurity and Its Neurophysiological Aspects
Intermittent distance exotropia is a deviation characterized by an exophoria at near fixation and manifest exotropia at distance fixation. There is normal binocular fusional vergence and stereoacuity at near fixation, but the eyes tend to diverge in bright sunlight, tiredness, day dreaming and the patient may close one eye in such circumstances. Prematurity is associated with numerous eye pathology, besides retinopathy of prematurity, amblyopia, refractive errors, it is also associated with a higher risk esotropia and exotropia. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl preterm and very low birth weight with an intermittent deviation of both eyes since three years. On her detailed ocular examination diagnosis of divergence excess intermittent exotropia with normal accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio was made.
Intermittent Distance Exotropia (IDEX)
Exotropia, or divergent squint, refers to an eye that turns or diverges outwards. Exotropia may occur from time to time intermittent exotropia or may be constant. You may only notice one particular eye drifting out, or it may be either eye that deviates, known as an alternating exotropia. These types of exotropia usually begin in early childhood. Congenital exotropia is more unusual, and often indicates poor vision or an ocular pathology. This outward drift, which occurs only in those moments of visual inattention, can be controlled when visual attention is refocused. The exotropia may occur rarely and result in few or no symptoms.