As a hydronics expert, Grundfos supplies variable speed pumps and smart sensors for the latter and has already enabled superior energy savings for global heat pump manufacturers. Furthermore, a flow controlled system can be used for heat metering, which is the focus for the following article. Calculating the SPF value, 4 sub-assemblies are required: a calculator or display system , a temperature sensor pair, a flow sensor and an electrical meter. The total error is calculated as the arithmetic sum of the maximum permissible errors of each sub-assembly:. A Grundfos Flow Sensor is delivered with a maximum error of 1. As the error is a percentage of the full scale value it is necessary to consider closely which sensor range to utilize.
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We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. Therefore, a viable implementation of building energy efficiency policies is inevitable to realize a transformation of the energy system to mitigate climate change. Within the building sector lies a huge potential for emission reduction consisting in the renovation of the existing building stock and climate-friendly building guidelines applicable to new constructions, both adapting CO 2 -neutral technology solutions.
However, as there are several different pathways leading to a decarbonized energy system, there is always the question which political and technological solutions are most efficient, effective, and feasible.
This paper aims to analyze building efficiency policy measures and instruments and the related technological solutions in two front-runner countries of the energy transition, possessing different structural conditions: Germany and Norway. We hence apply a comparative approach which allows us to present and assess the policies in place. The paper answers three research questions: 1 Which policies prevail in Germany and Norway to foster the deployment of energy efficient and decarbonized solutions for residential buildings?
This research provides a new insight to the highly relevant topic of energy efficiency in buildings in the context of international Intended Nationally Determined Contribution benchmarking and discusses some unsolved trade-offs in the translation of the global climate governance into the national building sector. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve.
The Climate Policy Initiative is a research network that has been founded in The institute conducts studies to evaluate and compare climate policies around the world with a focus on energy and land use policies. See Harvey for more details on different technological options to reduce energy consumption in buildings. The European and national statistical data are contradicting in that case: To guarantee the comparability of the case countries, we decided to refer to the Eurostat numbers that include references to both Norway and Germany.
The German statistics, e. The goal of this European Project was to monitor the energy efficiency trends and related policies. The project was co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Program. The Building Energy Act was supposed to combine the three existing laws, such as the Energy Conservation Act, the Energy Saving Ordinance, and the Renewable Energies Heat Act, in response to the difficulties of compliances with three different and sometimes contradictory laws in force.
A similar development can be seen in Denmark. The investment programs by the state-owned KfW bank support retrofits of the buildings that follow fixed, often relatively intensive, renovation standards. Energieflussbild der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Energieeinheit Petajoule PJ. Allcott, H.
Is there an energy efficiency gap? Journal of Economic Perpsectives, 26 1 , 3— Amecke, H. Buildings energy efficiency in China, Germany, and the United States.
Climate Policity Initiative Report. Ameli, N. Environmental Research Letters, 10 4. Energibruk I husholdningene Samfunnsspeilet, 4 , 9— Google Scholar. Bointner, R. Zebra —nearly zero-energy building strategy Brown, M.
Carbon lock-in: barriers to deploying climate change mitigation technologies. Volkswirtschaft Kompakt. KFW Economic Research. Diefenbach, N. Druckman, A. Missing carbon reductions?
Exploring rebound and backfire effects in UK households. Energy Policy, 39 , — Endringer i statsbudsjettet. Under Olje- og Energidepartementet, Prop. Energy Efficiency Watch. Energy efficiency in Europe.
Assessment of energy efficiency action plans and policies in EU Member States. File: half-yearly electricity and gas prices, second half of year, —14 EUR per kWh. YB statistics explained. Housing statistics. Federal Government of Germany.
Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. A good bit of work. Making more out of energy. Cabinet decision of 3 December Climate action plan Frondel, M. Galvin, R. Why German homeowners are reluctant to retrofit. Building Research and Information, 42 2 , — Economic viability in thermal retrofit policies: learning from ten years of experience in Germany. Energy Policy, 54 , — Buildings for our future. The deep path for closing the emissions gap in the building sector. Grabka, M.
DIW-Wochenbericht, 34 , — Gullberg, A. Towards a low carbon energy future—renewable energy cooperation between Germany and Norway. Renewable Energy, 68 , — Gynther, L.
Energy efficiency trends and policies in the household and tertiary sectors. Harvey, D. Reducing energy use in the building sector: measures, costs and examples.
Energy Efficiency, 2 , — Hens, H. Energy consumption for heating and rebound effects. Energy and Buildings, 42 1 , — Vekst i solkraftmarkedet Press Release Multiconsult. Institute for Energy Technology Energy efficiency trends and policies in Norway. KRDs workgroup on energy efficiency of buildings, , Report, available in Norwegian.
The potential for large-scale saving from insulating residential building in the EU. Energy Efficiency, 4 2 , — Lee, W. Regulatory and voluntary approaches for enhancing building energy efficiency.
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 30 5 , — Levine, M. Building energy-efficiency. Best practice policies and policy packages. Berkeley: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. LOV, decided 16th June , entered into force January 1 Lucon, O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruge, Y. Sokona, J.
Sensors for Heat Metering and the Renewable Heat Premium Payment (RHPP)
Dulkree By advocating heat metering like the German Heizkostenverordnung making heat metering on the heating side as well as the domestic hot water side mandatory by an equal playing field for various heating and cooling technologies has been created for consumer assessment and potential Renewable subsidies. If the primary energy demand of a refurbished building has become the same as that heizmostenverordnung for a new building or even better, building owners can apply for a Seal of Quality EH. KfW programmes Energy-efficient Construction and Refurbishment: Since the Land Berlin has made energy partnerships with 23 building pools with more than public properties, i. Calculating this in percentage of measured value a maximum error of 3. Heating pipes need to be insulated if they run through unheated rooms Tuschinskipp. Furthermore, a flow controlled system can be used for heat metering, which is the focus for the following article.
HEIZKOSTENVERORDNUNG 2012 PDF