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Hitler's early anti-Jewish measures provoked worldwide efforts at a boycott of German goods, a measure that would have injured a still precarious economy. Jews orchestrated these efforts at a boycott, but hesitated over whether it would inflame or moderate German anti-Semitism. Meanwhile Zionist leadership and the Third Reich agreed on arrangements whereby German Jews could emigrate to Palestine under somewhat more favorable financial conditions and whereby German trade with Palestinian Jewry would increase.

In turn, majority Zionists as against the Revisionists backed away from the boycott. The author documents the divisions within Jewry, insisting that the Zionists put their cause-German emigration to Palestine-ahead of the possible protection of Jews via more militant economic measures. Although shockingly deficient in his grasp of German developments, Black explicates the several Jewish positions, and seems to argue both that an early boycott might have succeeded and that "the Zionists were the coldest realists-perhaps the only realists-of the period.

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Haavara Agreement

The Haavara Agreement is an instance where the question of Jewish rights, Zionist needs and individual rescue were in deep tension. Jewish organizations outside of Germany had declared a boycott against German goods and hoped to delegitimate the Nazi regime. The Zionists saw this agreement as a way of attracting Jews to Palestine and thus rescuing them from the Nazi universe even if that meant cooperation with Hitler. For a time the Nazi program of making Germany Judenrein and the Zionist policy of seeking olim coincided.


Livingstone’s Nonsense on Hitler Nonetheless Touches Raw Zionist Nerve

The agreement was finalized after three months of talks by the Zionist Federation of Germany , the Anglo-Palestine Bank under the directive of the Jewish Agency and the economic authorities of Nazi Germany. It was a major factor in making possible the migration of approximately 60, German Jews to Palestine in — The agreement enabled Jews fleeing persecution under the new Nazi regime to transfer some portion of their assets to British Mandatory Palestine. This event is known as the Machtergreifung seizure of power. Within the Nazi movement, a variety of increasingly radical "solutions" to the " Jewish Question " were proposed both before and after the NSDAP was in government, including expulsion and the encouragement of voluntary emigration.

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