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Log In Sign Up. Gorun, Oradea, , p. Alexandru Madgearu. But, there are also some Hungarian studies marked by the same lack of criticism that is proper to the tendentious historiography of both countries. This lack of criticism led to the evolvement of a theory that dates in the first coming of the Hungarians in Transylvania. This fradition says that the Hungarian duke Almas entered with ,J J.. Exinde montesdescenderuntper tresmenseset deveniuntin cinfiniumregniHungarie, scilicet in Erdelw invitis gentibus memoratis.

Ibique terreis castris septem preparatis pro uxoribus et rebus suis conservandis aliquamdiu permanserunt. Quapropter Teutonici partem illam ab illo die Simburg, id est septem castravocaverunt. Almus in patria Erdelw occisus est, non enim potuit in Pannoniam introire. In Erdelw igitur quieverunt et pecorasua recreaverunt5. We agree with 1. Gyorffy is instead very confident in the trustworthyness of the tradition about the seven fortresses; he supposes that the Hungarians reused the ruins of the Roman cities7.

This theory is not a recent one. It is however surprising that this legend was used without any criticism by historians like Gy. Gyorffy and 1. In other circumstances, they were very exigent as concerns the traditions written down in the Anonymus Gesta Hungarorum9.

The legend presented above could be only a later and confused version of another tradition. The elder gesta written in XIIIth Century are giving detailed relations about the duke Almas and about the way followed by his people, from Scythia to Pannonia. The way crossed by north of Carpathians and not by Transylvania. This version l! The trustworthyness of this'informatibn'is out of yr subject. We shouldnote only that this tradition explains why the an9ther legend says that Almos was killea.

This explanation is convincing but not sufficient. The latter used it as a source. The moment of the conquest of the fortress Ung was related by Simon of Keza in a different way. He says that Hungarians founded a fortress near the river Hung A quo, quidamfluvio Hungari a gentibus occidentis, sunt vocati The etimology of the name Hungari is wrong. The real origin of the name is from QnogurF4.

Therefore, according to Simon of Kep, Hungarians built up seven fortresses in the region of river Hung these six and the first one mentioned above.

Tttis confusion betvyeen the building of seven fortresses and the name Septem Cas! This legend ,evolved in the bookish ilieu. The same passage was. Hungari - de Erdelw et de fz H ung It was expressed in. On the o'ther hand, this theory is contradicted by the res. This pomt of view, which is not only tendentious ,buFalsoqo,-:ersimple, is contradicted,by:tpe well grounded researches thatme";f,ounded ort the study of all the 4 earliest Hungariiom archaeological materials.

We did not wish to discuss here the study of Attila Kiss, butwe want to point out its importance for the archaeology of medieval Transylvania.

The real significance of the legend written down in Chronicon Pictum shows that Hungarian medieval chronicles must be interpreted with great carefulness. NOTES 1. Deletant, Ethno-History or My tho-History?

See the critical point of view about these books expressed by Radu Papa. Bona, in Histoire de la Transylvanie, sous la direction de B. Kopeczi, Budapest, , p. Szentpetery, Budapest, , I,p. Bona, op. Gy6rffy, op. See the quotations in Aurel Decei, Relap.

See, for instance, Gy. See V. Spinei, Migratia ungurilor in spatiul carpato-dunarean si eontaetele lor eu ungurll in seeblele IX-X, in "Arheologia Moldovei", 13, , p. This is the opinion of: Gh. Spinei, op. Un mileriiu de istorie romaneasdi in cronistica si istoriografia ungaro-germana, Bucure;;ti, , p. SRH, I,p. Boba,Nomads, Northmen and Slavs.

About the etimology of Siebenburgen, see Th. Pictum: SRH,l, p. See also Chr. Macartney, op. Budinsky-Kricka, N. Fettich, Das altungarische Fiirstengrab von Zemplin, Bratislava, , p. See especially: A. Kiss, Studien zur Archaologie der Ungarn im Philosophisch-HistorischeKlasse", , Wien, , p. Fodor, Zur Problematik der Ankunft der Ungarnim Karpatenbeeken und ihrer fortlaufenden Besiedlung, in the volume Interaktionen des mitteleuropaischen Slawen und andere Ethnika im 6.

Kiss, op. Related Papers. The Romanians in the Anonymous Gesta Hungarorum. By Alexandru Madgearu. Fonvizin: "Discourse on the immutable state-laws". By Endre Sashalmi. Case Study: Ethnotoponyms. By Victor V. Oriental Military in the Pre-Ottoman Balkans, — Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, Download pdf.

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Chronicon Pictum Vindobonense - Kepes Kronika - Cronica Pictata de la Viena - ante 1360

It represents the international artistic style of the royal courts in the court of Louis I of Hungary. Marci de Kalt shortly after the year , with the last of the illuminations being finished between and The chronicle reappears in the first half of the 17th century in royal archives of Vienna by unknown means, which is why it is also referred as the Vienna Illuminated Chronicle. The pictures of the chronicle are great sources of information on medieval Hungarian cultural history, costume, and court life in the 14th century. Many miniatures seen inside this chronicle are painted with gold.


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