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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is most often caused by abnormal genes in the heart muscle. These genes cause the walls of the heart chamber left ventricle to contract harder and become thicker than normal. The thickened walls become stiff. This reduces the amount of blood taken in and pumped out to the body with each heartbeat. In obstructive HCM, the wall septum between the two bottom chambers of the heart thickens.
The walls of the pumping chamber can also become stiff. It may block or reduce the blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. Most people with HCM have this type. This limits how much blood the ventricle can take in and pump out, but blood flow is not blocked.
Others may not have signs or symptoms in the early stages of the disease but may develop them over time. Knowing the signs and symptoms of HCM is important. It can help with getting an early diagnosis, when treatment may be most effective. Signs and symptoms of HCM include:. HCM is a chronic disease that can get worse over time.
This can lead to poorer function and quality of life, long-term complications and more financial and social burden. People with HCM often need to make lifestyle changes, such as limiting their activity, to adjust for their disease. As HCM progresses, it can cause other health problems. HCM may also lead to heart failure. It can also lead to sudden cardiac arrest , but this is rare.
HCM has been cited as the most common reason for sudden cardiac death in young people and athletes under the age of Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is most often inherited. HCM is the most common form of genetic heart disease. It can happen at any age, but most receive a diagnosis in middle age. A cardiologist or pediatric cardiologist often diagnoses and treats HCM.
You may also be referred to a cardiomyopathy center where the health care team has specialized training. HCM is diagnosed based on your medical history, family history, a physical exam and diagnostic test results.
Knowing your medical history and any signs and symptoms you may have is an important first step. Your heart and lungs will be checked. Your physician will listen for certain sounds with a stethoscope.
For example, the loudness, timing and location of a heart murmur may suggest obstructive HCM. Diagnosis is typically done by echocardiogram. It checks the thickness of the heart muscle and blood flow from the heart. A TEE is done using a probe inserted in the throat while the patient is under sedation.
Other diagnostic tests include:. Confirming diagnosis or preparing for surgery may also involve one or more medical procedures including:. There are currently no disease-specific medications for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. For those with symptoms, the focus is on symptom management using medications and procedures.
Medications called beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers and diuretics offer limited and varying relief of symptoms. They may help with function but may also have adverse side effects. After undergoing surgery to treat HCM, Sharon Bond founded a non-profit organization dedicated to raising awareness about heart disease.
Cardiomyopathy in Adults. Dilated Cardiomyopathy DCM. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy HCM. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia. Is Broken Heart Syndrome Real? Signs and symptoms of HCM include: Chest pain, especially with physical exertion Shortness of breath, especially with physical exertion Fatigue Arrhythmias abnormal heart rhythms Dizziness Lightheadedness Fainting syncope Swelling in the ankles, feet, legs, abdomen and veins in the neck HCM is a chronic disease that can get worse over time.
Medical and Family Histories Knowing your medical history and any signs and symptoms you may have is an important first step. Physical Exam Your heart and lungs will be checked. Diagnostic Tests Diagnosis is typically done by echocardiogram. Other diagnostic tests include: Electrocardiogram ECG Cardiac MRI Stress tests Holter and event monitors Genetic testing Diagnostic Procedures Confirming diagnosis or preparing for surgery may also involve one or more medical procedures including: Cardiac catheterization Coronary angiography Treatment and Management of HCM There are currently no disease-specific medications for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Medications Medications called beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers and diuretics offer limited and varying relief of symptoms. Procedures A range of surgical and nonsurgical procedures can be used to treat HCM: Septal myectomy — Septal myectomy is open-heart surgery.
This improves blood flow within the heart and out to the body. Alcohol septal ablation nonsurgical procedure — In this procedure, ethanol a type of alcohol is injected through a tube into the small artery that supplies blood to the area of heart muscle thickened by HCM. The alcohol causes these cells to die. The thickened tissue shrinks to a more normal size. The risks and complications of heart surgery increase with age.
For this reason, ablation may be preferred to myectomy in older patients with other medical conditions. This reduces the risk of sudden cardiac death. Heart transplant — In HCM patients with advanced, end-stage disease, a heart transplant may be considered.
Walking the Talk After undergoing surgery to treat HCM, Sharon Bond founded a non-profit organization dedicated to raising awareness about heart disease. Read her story. Learn more about MyoKardia.
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopahty is an inherited disease characterized by a left ventricular hypertrophy, a diastolic dysfunction and rhythm troubles with risk of sudden death. There was an evolution in the surgical strategy to treat the patients who present a left ventricular outflow tract gradient. A retrospective study was conducted: We selected eight cases who presented an hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and operated on. Pre and post operative echocardiographic data were analysed. Follow up was obtained by call or mail to the cardiologist.
[Alcohol Septal Ablation for Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomopathy]
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