Standard Test Method for Energy Measurement for Dynamic Penetrometers1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Scope 2. Referenced Documents 1. D Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies 1. This procedure may also be applicable to Data other dynamic penetrometer tests.
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Standard Test Method for Energy Measurement for Dynamic Penetrometers1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision.
A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Scope 2. Referenced Documents 1. D Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies 1. This procedure may also be applicable to Data other dynamic penetrometer tests. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are mathematical conversions which are provided for information 3.
Terminology purposes only and are not considered standard. It is not intended for use instrument attached on, around, or within a continuous column with down-hole hammers. Practice D specifies how these data 3. It is the drill rods by the impact of the hammer.
Published February Last previous edition approved in as D — No further reproductions authorized. Agencies that meet the 3. Apparatus mented subassembly and the bottom of the penetrometer.
The measurement location of force driven during an SPT test. Significance and Use NOTE 3—While having the same nominal area for the instrumented subsection as the drill string is desirable, variations in area are unavoid- 4.
The Standard Penetration wall thickness is rather loose, c joints already impose significant cross Test is the most common type. Engineering properties can be section changes far larger than the variation of cross section changes estimated on the basis of empirical correlations between found among common drill rod types for example, AW, BW, NW or N3 , N-values and soil density, strength or stiffness.
Alternatively, and d many drillers have and therefore mix both heavy and light section rods, particularly of the NW type , making it practically impossible to the N-value can be used directly in foundation design using measure with identical cross sections. The N-value depends on the soil 5. This energy measurement strain gages in a full bridge circuit.
The gages shall be arranged procedure can evaluate variations of N-value resulting from symmetrically such that all bending effects are canceled. The differences in the hammer system. See also Refs Transducer systems that insert massive 4. The Ref 7. Accelerometers shall be linear 4. The apparatus shall. Analog re-measured. If differences persist, the calculated area is systems electronically integrate measured acceleration to ve- considered more accurate.
Data from integration of acceleration compared with the measured acquisition sampling rate shall be at least 5 times the low-pass strain which is theoretically proportional to velocity to check filter frequency to avoid signal aliasing.
Automatic balancing the acceleration calibration factor. To long. Procedure sensor in digital form with a minimum bit resolution. The 7. The zero line of the acceleration shall be determined cable, a description of the cathead system for example, such that the velocity near the end of the sample shall be zero.
The applicable, a description of automatic-trip system, drop height, measured acceleration shall be integrated to obtain velocity. Note any significant hammer operating condi- Small time shifts between the force and velocity should be tions such as weather, verticality, or changes in lubrication. Larger time shifts indicate deficiencies in the measurement NOTE 5—Ideally, do not combine drill rods of varying sizes for system and should be corrected.
Energy is calculated as per 7. The apparatus shall be capable of reviewing each NOTE 6—The number, size, and condition of pulley sheaves affects the energy transfer. Energy is consumed in the friction and rotation of the individual measured signal to confirm data quality during sheave and thus they should be inspected and their number and condition acquisition as described in 7.
The apparatus for display shall noted. Because some automatic hammers 7. If the rate is different, recommend hammer maintenance. Weather conditions can affect rope and cathead operations. The strain calibration allows direct comparison of strain with particle velocity. The dual calibration 7. If the calculated and 7. For infrequently used hammer systems, it is joints should be tight. Rope and cathead operated hammers are 7. It is desirable to calibrate prior to starting major critical projects.
The result of this known signal shall be compared with 7. Report 7. Minor variations in measurements. Loose connections 8. Loose joints reduce the energy transfer and if condition of crown sheaves. For safety hammers, check for observed should be noted to the penetrometer crew who should total stroke, drop mark, vents, lubrication condition and note be instructed to carefully tighten all joints.
This is the rate, estimated drop height, lubrication condition, anvil s prime method to assess data quality and the reliability of the dimension. Some hammers are rate dependent. Report the measured signals. Examples include verticality, weather, or lubrica- data with 5 depths preferred, while using the SPT system in as tion between trials.
It is preferable to make as 8. Record the number of blows, or N-value, and penetra- recording section lengths and weights of each rod section may tion depth of the sampler for each test. The integration is carried and processing equipment and information about the most to the end of the record and the maximum energy transferred at recent calibrations of the energy measuring and processing any time during the record is determined.
Keywords Precision and Bias standard penetration test 9. It is either not feasible or too. Since the wave speed in steel is under the jurisdiction of subcommittee D The only instrumentation Method D, Practice D Such an apparatus Engineering 6. The analysis method was the U. The device sensed zero force to terminate Provided there are no reflections from joints or changed cross integration of the first compression pulse.
As experience was gained it was realized X1. Since then, N60 has become standard practice that the hammer energy input was terminated by the reflective for evaluation of liquefaction resistance as outlined in Practice tensile wave and the remaining energy could be predicted. The D Subse- quent research has shown that this factor is not correct and X1. Liquefaction evaluation methods such as wave propagation exists in any dynamic penetrometer system, NCEER 10, 11 that advocate short rod correction the Force Velocity EFV method is the only fundamentally factors based on the theoretical calculation are not correct.
The EFV X1. Correction factors are not. EF2 data were either higher or lower than EFV. Martin, G. Regulatory Research, U. Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol 28, No.
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Historical Version s - view previous versions of standard. More D The Standard Penetration Test is the most common type. Engineering properties can be estimated on the basis of empirical correlations between N-values and soil density, strength or stiffness. Alternatively, the N-value can be used directly in foundation design using correlations to design parameters such as allowable bearing pressure or pile capacity.
This procedure may also be applicable to other dynamic penetrometer tests. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are mathematical conversions which are provided for information purposes only and are not considered standard. Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this test method. In this system, the pound lbf represents a unit of force weight , while the unit for mass is slugs.