ARTERIA CAROTIDE ESTERNA PDF

I fattori di rischio allo sviluppo di stenosi dell'arteria carotide sono i medesimi che per l'aterosclerosi. Sono presenti ulteriori fattori che permettono di stimare una maggiore o minore progressione della malattia:. Le forme di stenosi carotidea ad eziologia ateromasica si differenziano a seconda dell'aspetto della placca [4] :. Segni e sintomi correlati alla stenosi carotidea non sono riscontrabili soltanto alla sede di malattia, ma anche al territorio di vascolarizzazione dell'arteria carotide stessa, ovvero l' encefalo. Le forme asintomatiche sono individuabili tramite auscultazione soffi carotidei o ecografia dei tronchi sovraortici. Le forme sintomatiche possono presentarsi invece tramite attacchi ischemici transitori , a volte ingravescenti, e stroke :.

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The suprahyoid region extends from the base of the skull to the hyoid bone and includes the pharyngeal, parapharyngeal, parotid, carotid, masticator, retropharyngeal, and perivertebral spaces, as well as the oral cavity. The areas that can be explored by ultrasound include the parotid, carotid, and masticator spaces; the oral cavity; the submandibular and sublingual spaces; the floor of the mouth; and the root of the tongue.

The parotid space contains the parotid gland and the excretory duct of Steno, the facial nerve, the external carotid artery, the retromandibular vein, and the intraparotid lymph nodes. The carotid space in the suprahyoid region of the neck contains the internal carotid artery, the internal jugular vein, cranial nerves IX to XII, and the sympathetic plexus. Only some parts of the masticator space can be explored sonographically: these include the masseter muscle, the zygomatic arch and the outer cortex of the ramus of the mandible, and the suprazygomatic portion of the temporalis muscle.

The submandibular space houses the submandibular gland, the submental and submandibular lymph nodes, and the anterior belly of digastric muscle.

The facial artery and vein and the lower loop of the hypoglossal nerve all pass through the submandibular space. The sublingual space includes the sublingual gland, the deep portion of the submandibular gland and its main excretory duct, the hypoglossal nerve cranial nerve XII , the lingual nerve branch of the mandibular branch of trigeminal , and the glossopharyngeal nerve IX cranial nerve , and the lingual artery and vein.

The mylohyoid muscle forms the floor of the mouth. The deepest portion of the oral tongue, the root, consists of the genioglossus and geniohyoid muscles and includes the septum of the tongue. In this article we present the ultrasound features of the structures located in the suprahyoid region of the neck. Tra questi sono ecograficamente esplorabili gli spazi parotideo, carotideo, masticatorio e, del cavo orale, gli spazi sottomandibolare, sottolinguale, il pavimento della bocca e la radice della lingua.

Il muscolo miloioideo costituisce il pavimento della bocca. Nel presente articolo vengono presentati gli aspetti ecografici delle strutture situate nella regione sovraioidea del collo. Keywords: Anatomy; Neck; Sonography.

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Which day? Send at most: 1 item 5 items 10 items 20 items 50 items items items. Send even when there aren't any new results. Optional text in email:. Save Cancel. Create a file for external citation management software Create file Cancel. Full-text links Cite Favorites. Abstract in English , Italian. Figures Fig. Axial scan of the parotid gland showing the superficial lobe 1 , the masseter extension of the gland 2 , the masseter muscle 3 , the ramus of the mandible 4 ,the retromandibular vein 5 , the external carotid artery 6 , and the apex of the mastoid process 7.

Axial scan of the parotid a few centimeters downstream from that in Fig. It shows the retromandibular vein 1 and the external carotid artery 2 , which are separated by the stylohyoid muscles and posterior belly of the digastric muscle 3 , the sternocleidomastoid muscle 4 and the ramus of the mandible 5.

Longitudinal scan of the parotid gland, which shows the retromandibular vein 1 and the external carotid artery 2 , whose lower halves are separated by the stylohyoid muscles and the posterior belly of the digastric muscle 3.

Sagittal scan of the submandibular space, which shows the platysma muscle 1 , the submandibular gland 2 and its lingual extension 3 , the mylohyoid 4 and hyoglossus 5 muscles, the palatine tonsils 6 , and the sternocleidomastoid muscle 7. Coronal scan of the submandibular space, which shows the platysma muscle 1 , the submandibular gland 2 and its lingual extension 3 , the hyoglossus muscle 4 muscles, the angle of the jaw 5 , and a periglandular lymph node 6.

Coronal scan of the sublingual space, which shows the sublingual gland 1 , the body of the mandible 2 , the digastric 3 , mylohyoid 4 , geniohyoid 5 , and genioglossus 6 muscles; and the hyperechoic raphe of the tongue 7. Longitudinal scan of the sublingual gland 1 , which shows the digastric 2 and mylohyoid 3 muscles, as well as the symphysis menti 4. Coronal scan of the floor of the mouth and the base of the tongue: It shows the mylohyoid 1 , geniohyoid 2 , and genioglossus 3 muscles; the raphe of the tongue 4 , the body of the tongue 5 , the digastric muscle 6 , the sublingual glands 7 , and the body of the mandible 8.

Longitudinal, panoramic scan of the tongue showing the symphysis menti 1 , the hyoid bone 2 , the geniohyoid 3 and genioglossus 4 muscles, and the body of the tongue 5. All figures 9. See this image and copyright information in PMC. Similar articles Ultrasound anatomy of the neck: The infrahyoid region. Gervasio A, et al. J Ultrasound. Epub Nov 5. Anatomy, Head and Neck, Carotid Sheath. Garner DH, et al. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Anatomy, Head and Neck, Lingual Artery.

Lettau J, Bordoni B. Lettau J, et al. Surgical and radiologic anatomy of facial paralysis and their surgical repair]. Vacher C, Cyna-Gorse F. Vacher C, et al. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. Epub Jul 2. PMID: French. Crocodile Tears Syndrome. Modi P, Arsiwalla T. Modi P, et al. Show more similar articles See all similar articles. Fukushi R, et al. Case Rep Orthop. Early hemodynamic characteristics of eversion and patch carotid endarterectomies. Chait J, et al.

Epub May 8. PMID: Bordoni B, et al. Pathology of the carotid space. Chengazi HU, et al. Insights Imaging. Hwang UJ, et al. Aesthet Surg J. Show more "Cited by" articles See all "Cited by" articles. Full-text links [x] Free PMC article. Copy Download.

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